Calibration techniques - pH meter (How to do proper calibration)?

calibration

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pH meter Calibration Techniques

Incorrect calibration is a major contributor to error found in measurement.

Proper technique may vary from process to process.

Some of the inproper calibration are listed below.
-Temperature equilibrium
-Inadequate stabilization of measurement
-Inadequate rinsing of probes
-Reference electrode contamination
-Buffer or standard contamination
-Aging probes replaced
-Temperature error

Buffer related pH calibration problems are listed below -

-Aging
-Different temperatures
-Mixing
-Contamination
-Changing junction potential
-Streaming potential
-It can take 45 minutes to 1 hour for a good industrial pH sensor to reach equilibrium
-45 minutes to 2 hours to buffer calibrate a hot pH sensor.