CAPACITOR FUNCTION AND ITS APPLICATION


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              CAPACITOR FUNCTION AND ITS APPLICATION

A capacitor is a two-terminal device that stores electrical energy in an electric field. A lot of capacitors can be seen in circuits well it is to add capacitance which is the effect of the capacitor. The definition of capacitance is the ratio of electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference across it. A capacitor has two conductors which are separated by non-conductive region the non-conductive region can be dielectric or a semiconductor. As a layer present in between two conductors of the capacitor it won’t allow DC current to flow through it, instead, a voltage will be present across the plates in the form of electric charge

**WORKING OF A CAPACITOR** 

Capacitors and batteries working are related in a way both stores electrical energy a battery produce electrons by chemical reaction while the capacitor doesn’t produce electrons it only stores them. If a charge is applied to one of the conductors it will exert a force on the charge carriers of the other conductor, Attracting opposite polarity charge and repels on the same polarity. A charge will be formed at the surface of the conductor and thus it holds equal and opposite charges on the facing surface and an electric field will be developed by the dielectric.
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TYPES OF CAPACITORS

• Ceramic capacitors - this kind of capacitors have ceramic as a dielectric
• Paper capacitors ¬¬- paper is used as the dielectric material
• Electrolytic capacitors – this has a very thin dielectric oxide layer and larger anode surface due to this electrolytic capacitors have much higher capacitance-voltage
• Polymer capacitors – in this type aluminum or niobium electrolytic capacitor with conductive polymer as the electrolyte
• Double layer capacitor – this kind of capacitor consists of helmholtz double layer
• Supercapacitors – it is a high capacitor with capacitance value much higher than other capacitors it stores 10 to 100 times more energy than electrolytic capacitors

CAPACITOR IN SERIES
If the capacitors are connected in series the total capacitance is less one of the series capacitor an increase in plate spacing with all the factors unchanged the result will decrease in capacitance and thus the total capacitance is less than any of the individual capacitor’s capacitance
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Above shown formula is to calculate capacitance in series

CAPACITOR IN PARALLEL

When a capacitor is connected in parallel the total capacitance is the sum of individual capacitor

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The formula for calculating total capacitance
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APPLICATIONS

• Energy storage
• Used for pulsed power application
• Power conditioning
• Power factor correction
• Suppression and coupling
• Used as motor starters
• Used in the oscillator to control frequency
• A capacitor can be used to measure strain or weight with the help of a flexible plate
• It can be used for sensing and measurements
• Used in tuned circuits to tune the frequency
• Used to decouple one part of the circuit from other
• Used in active and passive filters
• Reduce ripple and regulates DC
• Block DC and pass AC