EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSOR AND ITS APPLICATIONS


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                         MICROPROCESSOR

A microprocessor is a computer processor that does the functions of a central processing unit it is a silicon chip that has millions of transistors and other electronic components. A microprocessor can process millions of instructions per second it is a combination of memory and special purpose chips and preprogrammed by a software. According to the instructions stored in the memory, it processes the input digital data the microprocessor has various functions like data storage interact with other devices but the main function is to send and receive data to make the computer function well. A microprocessor is a single chip with a lot of useful functions are integrated and fabricated on a single chip

ARCHITECTURE OF MICROPROCESSOR

Its architecture consists of CPU, memory modules, system bus, and an input-output unit. A system bus connects various units for information exchange it consists of data address and control busses to perform data exchange. The CPU contains registers, arithmetic & logic unit, and control unit. Microprocessor consists of special purpose and general purpose registers for execution and storage of data while the program runs for accepting and sending the information I/O peripheral devices will be interfaced with the microcontroller.

EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSOR

1st generation – The first microprocessor 4004 was created by Intel in 1971 that has a clock speed of 108 kHz

2nd generation ­– during this period efficient 8-bit microprocessor was created like Motorola 6800 and Intel 8085

3rd generation - this is the period in which 16-bit processor was created and designed using HMOS technology Intel 8086 and Motorola 68000 were developed. The speed of this processor was four times better than 2nd generations

4th generation – in this generation 32 bit microprocessors were created by HCMOS fabrication Intel 80386 and Motorola 68020 were the popular ones

5th generation – in this generation 64 bit microprocessor was created examples are Pentium, Celeron

TYPES OF MICROPROCESSOR (CISM)

COMPLEX INSTRUCTION SET

These type of processor performs different tasks like uploading, downloading and recalling of data it also does a complex mathematical calculation in a single command

REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET (RISC)

This processor completes more commands at a faster rate by carrying out small things in specific command

SUPERSCALAR MICROPROCESSORS

in this, the hardware of the processor does many tasks at a time and it can be used for ALU or multipliers they have different operational units and these processors can carry out more than one command by transmitting much instruction for the extra operational units

APPLICATION SPECIFIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

These processors are used for particular purpose automotive emission control or personal digital assistants computer

DIGITAL SIGNAL MULTIPROCESSORS

These are used for digital to analog conversion or analog to digital these are also used to encode or decode videos the microprocessor used Is excellent in mathematical calculations the chips of this processor are used in RADAR, SONAR and in audio gears

APPLICATIONS AND ADVANTAGES

  • Used in field instrumentation
  • Controllers
  • Communication process
  • Calculators
  • Accounting system
  • Complex industrial controllers
  • Traffic light control
  • Data acquisition systems
  • Military applications
  • Increased processing speed
  • Intelligence in system
  • Flexible
  • Compact size
  • Easy maintenance