WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


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              WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Distribution system plays a very important role in power system it is the main link between the bulk power and the consumers. In order to meet the required load for the domestic, industrial and commercial requirements effective planning of radial distribution system is needed. But during the distribution process, many faults can occur like high overvoltages, fault currents… in order to do the proper distribution, a radial distribution network must have the following characteristics

  • It does need to satisfy the changing of load demand for active and passive power
  • Electricity can’t be stored easily so adequate spinning reserve for active and reactive power must be maintained and controlled
  • The power supply must have the following standards
  • Regulated voltage
  • Well maintained a constant frequency
  • It must have better reliability and security
  • It should support energy supply at minimum operation and maintenance cost

POWER NETWORK

Transmission system transfers bulk power between the power generation station and the distribution substation, and from there it is carried to the customer delivery points. Transformers are the main part in the transmission system they have step up and step down transformers at the generating and distribution stations, power transmission has sub-transmission stages to provide more economical transmission between transmission and distribution system.

Sub-transmission system transmits energy at lower voltage levels to the distribution substation generally it supplies power directly to the industrial customers. Distribution networks are generally radial or tree-structured and so it is known as the radial distribution network

Distribution systems are the electrical systems between the substation fed by the transmission system and the customers

ELEMENTS OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

The distribution system consists of feeders, circuit breaker and service mains

DISTRIBUTED FEEDER

Feeders are the conductors which connect the sub-station to the area where the power is distributed and feeders have the capability of current carrying there is no tapping in the feeders so the current will remain the same

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DISTRIBUTOR

The distributor is a conductor and the current through It is not constant because of the tapping during the designing of the distributor voltage drop along its length is the main consideration

SERVICE MAINS

Service mains connects the distributor to the consumer terminal it is generally a small cable

REQUIREMENTS OF A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

  • Loading – the transmission line must not be overloaded and underloaded
  • Efficiency- maximum efficiency is required while the transmission it must be about 90 percentage
  • Power demand- power should be available to the customers according to their requirements
  • Proper voltage- it is the most important thing in a transmission system because the voltage variation at the consumer terminal must be low