What is smart grid technology


#1

Introdcution

Before smart grid technology there is electric grid lets see what is an electric grid and Why Modernization of Electric Grid is required?

The electric grid delivers electricity from points of generation to consumers. The electricity delivery network functions via two primary networks: the transmission system and the distribution system. The transmission systems deliver electricity from power plants to distribution substations, while distribution systems deliver electricity from distribution substations to consumers.

Why Modernization of Electric Grid is required?

  • Increase in the reliability, efficiency and safety of the electricity network.
  • Allow the generation of decentralized energy so that households can be both customers and energy suppliers (provide consumers with an interactive tool to manage the use of energy).
  • Flexibility of energy consumption on the client side to allow the selection of the supplier (allows distributed generation, solar, wind and biomass).
  • Increase GDP by creating more new green energy jobs related to manufacturing the renewable energy industry, electric plug-in vehicles, solar panels and wind turbine generation, energy conservation and construction.

The grid also encompasses myriads of local area networks that use distributed energy resources to several loads and/or to meet specific application requirements for remote power, municipal or district power, premium power, and critical loads protection

What is a smart grid ?

A modernized grid that enables bidirectional flows of energy and uses two-way communication and control capabilities that will lead to an array of new functionalities and applications.

What Things Make a Grid “Smart”?

According to the Department of Energy (United States), Four types of advance technology will transform a typical electrical grid into Smart Grid which are as follow:

  • Fully automated and Integrated two way communication between the overall components of an electric grid.
  • Automatic Control for power distribution, faults and repairs.
  • Advance management panel, decision support software and mechanism.
  • Accurate sensing and measurement technologies.

Functions of smart grid

  • Real-time monitoring of the conditions of the grid.
  • Improved automated diagnostics of network disturbances and better aids for operators who must respond to network problems.
  • Automatic responses to network failure that will isolate disturbed areas and prevent or limit cascading blackouts that can spread over a wide area.
  • “Connect and use” capacity to connect new generation plants to the electricity network, which reduces the need to carry out interconnection studies and physical updates.
  • The automatic restoration of energy would be achieved through a combination of sensors, computer analysis and advanced components of the substation, as well as through the ability to redirect energy to the interruption locations.
  • Improvement of the capacity to manage large amounts of solar and wind energy.

Difference between Traditional and smart grid

Wires used for smart grid technology

1
High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire enables power transmission and distribution cables with three to five times the capacity of conventional underground AC cables and up to ten times the capacity of DC cables. Fault current management capability when using Fault Blocker cable systems

Disadvantages of Smart Grid

 Biggest concern: security and privacy
 Smart Grid: use

  • automated meters,
  • two-way communications: between a power consumer and provider
  • and advanced sensors
     Some types of meters can be hacked
     Hacker:
  • gain control of thousands, even millions, of meters
  • increase or decrease the demand for power
     Not simply a single component
     Various technology components:
     software, the power generators, system integrators, etc.
     Expensive for consumer

Applications of smart grids are

  • Improve the proficiency of transmission lines
  • Rapid recovery after any breakage / sudden alteration in lines and feeders
  • Cost reduction
  • Peak demand reduction
  • They have the capacity to integrate with renewable energy sources at a high level that allows the sharing of cargo and reduce the load on a large scale.

Also read

Variable Frequency Drive- Basics, Working and Selection of VFD
Computer aided circuit Analysis: SPICE
Electrical signal and control wiring